# PHYS& 115 General Physics II • 6 Cr.

## Description

Second in a three-course survey of physics for allied health, building construction, biology, forestry, architecture, and other programs. Topics include fluids, heat, thermodynamics, electricity, and magnetism. Laboratory work is integral to the course. Prerequisite: PHYS& 114.

## Outcomes

After completing this class, students should be able to:

Laboratory Skills Laboratory Practice
• Uses standard laboratory instruments appropriately, based on a sufficient understanding of their function;
• Measures physical quantities in the laboratory with appropriate attention to minimizing possible sources of random and systematic error;
Measurement Concepts
• Measures physical quantities in the laboratory with appropriate attention to minimizing possible sources of random and systematic error;
• Makes reasonable estimates of the uncertainties associated with each measurement;
• Recognizes that measurement uncertainty is estimated as an act judgment on the part of the observer and that judgment does not imply arbitrariness;
Analysis / Physical Reasoning
• Evaluates a hypothesis in terms of its testability and determine the kind and amount of data required to test it;
• Summarizes the properties of a set of data to facilitate analysis, using standard statistics such as mean and standard deviation;
• Determines the uncertainty of a computed quantity that arises from the uncertainties in the measured values of the quantities from which it is computed;
• Analyzes an appropriate set of measurements for consistency with a hypothesis, form and justify a conclusion regarding the fit between the data and the hypothesis;
Scientific Communication Skills
• Produces a compactly and unambiguously worded hypothesis as the starting point for observation or experiment;
• Produces a compact and unambiguous verbal description of an experimental procedure and of the observations/data obtained using it;
• Produces a compact and unambiguous verbal description of a chain of theoretical or experimental reasoning characterized by clarity regarding assumptions, accuracy regarding logical connections, specificity regarding conclusions, and clarity regarding the scope (and limitations) of applicability;
• Recognizes that uncertainty is inherent in measurement rather than being a human failing;
• Will not use the phrase, "human error" in lab reports;
• Expresses data clearly using appropriate units, valid treatment of experimental uncertainty and attention to the significant digits in numerical representations.
• Expresses experimental conclusions clearly, compactly and unambiguously.
Physical Problem Solving Skills
• Habitually sketches the configuration of problem elements as part of the problem-solving process;
• Habitually uses a variety of representations in the problem-solving process;
• Consciously selects an appropriate coordinate system;
• Identifies sub-problems and breaks a large problem into parts (linking variables);
• Habitually develops and interprets algebraic representations before substituting particular numerical values;
• Makes appropriate use of significant figures and units in problem-solving;
• Interprets algebraic and numerical results in words;
Topical Objectives Fluid Dynamics
• Describe the relationship between mass and density and that between force and pressure and to translate Newton's Laws of Motion into the forms applicable to continuous media;
• Articulate the reasoning that leads from a Newtonian equilibrium analysis of small fluid elements (hydrostatic equilibrium) to Archimedes' and Pascal's Principles and apply these principles appropriately in qualitative reasoning;
• Compute pressures throughout any volume of fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium, the forces exerted by a fluid on its environment, and buoyant forces on floating or submerged objects in such a fluid;
• Apply the equation of continuity to determine the velocity field in circumstances of either compressible and incompressible flow;
• Apply work and energy concepts in the qualitative analysis of flow and to use Bernoulli's equation to compute pressure, velocity and flow rate at any point along a streamline in a case of laminar non-viscous incompressible flow;
• Reason qualitatively about common biomedical and engineering examples of fluid flow, appropriately accounting for the differences among laminar, turbulent, viscous, and non-viscous flow;
Thermal Physics
• Describe the similarities and distinctions among heat, internal energy and temperature and the relationships linking them, including their application to the concept of thermal equilibrium;
• Make calorimetric calculations of thermal equilibrium conditions;
• Calculate heat transfers involved in phase changes and determine the conditions of multi-phase equilibria;
• Describe the mechanisms of heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation;
• Make qualitative assessments of the relative importance of each process in familiar situations;
• Calculate the steady-state conditions of heat transfer by conduction and radiation, based on appropriate mathematical models;
• Account for the qualitative behavior of ideal gases in terms of a simple kinetic model of elastically colliding molecules;
• Apply the Ideal Gas Law to compute changes in pressure, volume, and temperature of confined gases;
• Describe the First Law of Thermodynamics as an expression of work and energy conservation principles and the Second Law of Thermodynamics as an expression of the asymmetry of heat flow and the asymmetry of time;
• Calculate the exchanges of heat and work involved in expansions and compressions of ideal gases and apply these calculations to the operation of heat engines and refrigerators modeled on the Carnot Cycle;
Electrostatics General
• Make fruitful choices of system charge(s) to study and clearly distinguish between the system and the environment;
• Correspondingly distinguish between and properly associate the field (or potential) belonging to the system charge from those made by charges in the environment;
• Generate expressions for the field (or potential) produced by the environment charges throughout the region containing the system charge(s) and determine the values for these quantities at the site of the system charge(s);
• Generate expressions for the interaction (force or potential energy) produced by the environment field (or potential) on the system charge(s) and determine the values for these interactions as inputs to the associated mechanics problem;
• Apply the learning objectives of the mechanics course to solve mechanics problems in this new context;
• The student has developed the awareness that the mechanics principles can be generalized beyond that course. use, in reverse, the same concepts and tools as employed when reasoning from known causes to unknown effects so as to reconstruct unknown causes from known effects;
Electrostatics Particular
• Explain simple electrostatics experiments and charge separation phenomena using ideas of conduction, polarization of matter, and neutral pairs;
• Identify the spectrum of electric properties of bulk matter resulting from the range of conductivity (zero to sensibly infinite) and describe the basic implications of these properties on the fields and potentials in and around matter, both microscopically and macroscopically;
• Recognize that the structure of the field (or potential) is determined by the distribution of the charges and demonstrate this understanding by identifying symmetries in the field (or potential) structure that arise from symmetries in the charge distribution (point vs. line vs. plane sources);
• Apply symmetry arguments concerning field structure to the application of Gauss' law;
• Compute the flux of the electric field in symmetrical charge configurations and apply Gauss' law to determine the resulting electric field distributions. recognize asymmetry in the charge distributions and can relate these asymmetries to the structure of the fields (ex; discontinuity of E at a boundary);
• Demonstrate understanding of the electric field in the space around environment charges by drawing qualitatively correct field line maps for small numbers of charges or charged conductors;
• Apply quantitative aspects of basic electric field configurations in qualitative reasoning, e.g. E points away from positive charges (toward negative). E falls off as r squared for the point charge, and as r cubed for the dipole. The force produced by one charge on another is equal to the force produced by the second charge on the first.
• Recognize the analytic simplicity implied by the concept of superposition and can apply this understanding by constructing solutions to complex problems (involving both discrete and continuous charge distributions) by adding the fields (or potentials) for simpler problems together to obtain the field (or potential) for the complex problem.
Electric Potential Particular
• Demonstrate understanding of the electric potential in the space around environment charges by drawing qualitatively correct equipotential maps for small numbers of charges or charged conductors;
• Demonstrate understanding of the relationships between electric field and electric potential by the ability to transform electric field maps into electric potential maps and the reverse;
Electric Circuit Particular Objectives
• Clearly distinguishes electric potential from current in electric circuits and recognize current as a material flow (conserved) that proceeds in the direction of the gradient of the potential;
• Link electric potential in electric circuits to the concept of potential described above and to models of circuit potential such as water pressure or "electrical height";
• Analyze simple series and parallel networks using equivalent circuits, solving for any desired variable;
• Analyze complex networks using Kirchhoff's rules;
• Understand and can apply the formal definitions for capacitance, resistance, current, current density, resistivity, power, EMF and internal resistance;
• Predict the outcome of simple shorting and disconnecting experiments in direct current circuits;
• Qualitatively analyze RC and LR circuits and quantitatively predict their time behavior in a simple situation;
Magnetic Field Particular
• Predict magnetic field geometries produced by simple source geometries composed of permanent dipole magnets, straight current-carrying wires, and loops;
• Apply Ampere's Law to determine magnetic field strengths near straight current-carrying wires;
• Determine the forces and torques exerted on system charges, currents, current loops and magnetic dipoles by external magnetic fields;
Field-Field Particular
• Qualitatively describe the production of electric fields by changing magnetic fields and magnetic fields by changing electric field;
• Correctly apply Faraday's Law and Lenz' Law and the right-hand rule in quantitative calculations of induced EMF and resulting induced currents;
• Describe the physical principles that explain electric motors and generators and the conceptual similarities between these devices;
• Compare the properties of alternating current and direct current and relate these properties to the operation of batteries and electric generators.
Laboratory Skills
• Use standard laboratory instruments appropriately, based on a sufficient understanding of their function;
Measure physical quantities in the laboratory with appropriate attention to minimizing possible sources of random and systematic error; Laboratory Practice, Outcome/Assessment:
• Student will reliably acquire data of sufficient quality to decisively test the hypothesis of formal laboratory investigations.
• Alternative or parallel assessment:
• The student will demonstrate satisfactory performance on lab practicum questions associated with mid-term or final exams.
• Measure physical quantities in the laboratory with appropriate attention to minimizing possible sources of random and systematic error;
• Make reasonable estimates of the uncertainties associated with each measurement;
• Recognizes that measurement uncertainty is estimated as an act judgment on the part of the observer and that judgment does not imply arbitrariness.
Measurement, Outcome/Assessment:
• Student will reliably record quality data acquired through measurement, habitually assigning a reasonable uncertainty to each measured value.
• Data analysis and conclusive statements from formal lab reports will demonstrate a satisfactory level
• Evaluate a hypothesis in terms of its testability and determine the kind and amount of data required to test it;
• Summarize the properties of a set of data to facilitate analysis, using standard statistics such as mean and standard deviation;
• Determine the uncertainty of a computed quantity that arises from the uncertainties in the measured values of the quantities from which it is computed;
• Analyze an appropriate set of measurements for consistency with a hypothesis, form and justify a conclusion regarding the fit between the data and the hypothesis;
Communication Skills
• Produce a compact and unambiguous verbal description of an experimental procedure and of the observations/data obtained using it;
• Produce a compact and unambiguous verbal description of a chain of theoretical or experimental reasoning, including clarity regarding assumptions, accuracy regarding logical connections, specificity regarding conclusions, and clarity regarding the scope (and limitations) of applicability.
Physical Problem Solving Skills
• Habitually sketches the configuration of problem elements as part of the problem-solving process;
• Habitually uses a variety of representations in the problem-solving process;
• Consciously selects an appropriate coordinate system;
• Identifies sub-problems and breaks a large problem into parts (linking variables).
• Habitually develops and interprets algebraic representations before substituting particular numerical values;
• Makes appropriate use of significant figures and units in problem solving;
• Interprets algebraic and numerical results in words;
Fundamental Force Concepts Fundamental Force objectives
• Students understand that there are four fundamental forces in nature.
• The gravitational force.
• The electromagnetic force.
• The weak nuclear force.
• The strong nuclear force.
• Students will be able to interpret and use the vector expressions for the gravitational and electric forces, and to recognize the implications of these expressions for the analysis of many body problems by direct force calculation.
Context for the objectives: Classical Physics is applied to nature by making an intellectually fruitful choice of system to study. The rest of the universe then becomes the environment for this system. This analytic dichotomy is both a goal for instruction and a context for describing the objectives below. When the system and its environment each comprise small numbers of charges, analysis proceeds by computing the electric field or electric potential produced by the environmental charges, then computing the interaction of system charges with that field. The force (or potential energy) of that interaction then becomes an input to the mechanics problem as described in Electrostatics General objectives
• The Student is able to make fruitful choices of system charge(s) to study and clearly distinguishes between the system and the environment. The student can distinguish between and properly associate the field (or potential) belonging to the system charge from those made by charges in the environment.
• The student can generate expressions for the field (or potential) produced by the environment charges throughout the region containing the system charge(s) and determine the values for these quantities at the site of the system charge(s).
• The student can generate expressions for the interaction (force or potential energy) produced by the environment charges on the system charge(s) and determine the values for these interactions as inputs to the associated mechanics problem.
• The student is able to apply the learning objectives of the mechanics course to solve mechanics problems in this new context. The student has developed the awareness that the mechanics principles can be generalized beyond that course.
• The process described above is linear, proceeding from cause to effect. Once it is understood the student must also be able to reason (and solve problems) that begin with the effects as the inputs and have the causes as the desired goal.
The Electrostatics Particular Objectives
• Students able to explain simple electrostatics experiments and charge separation phenomena using ideas of conduction, polarization of matter, and neutral pairs.
• The student has an introductory understanding of the structure and constituents of atoms, molecules, crystals and amorphous solids, and can describe how these structures and the very large number of particles involved affect the electrical properties of the respective macroscopic material.
• Students can identify the spectrum of electric properties of bulk matter resulting from the range of conductivity (zero to sensibly infinite) and understand the basic implications of these properties on the fields and potentials in and around matter. The student can describe these implications both microscopically and macroscopically.
• Students recognize that the structure of the field (or potential) is determined by the structure of the charges. Students will demonstrate this understanding by identifying symmetries in the field (or potential) structure that arise from symmetries in the charge distribution (point vs. line vs. plane sources, E vs. B field structures).
• The student can apply symmetry arguments concerning field structure to the application of Gauss' law.
• Students recognize asymmetry in the charge distributions and can relate these asymmetries to the structure of the fields (ex; discontinuity of E at a boundary, the magnetic field around a wire etc. ).
• The student demonstrates understanding of the electric field in the space around environment charges by drawing qualitatively correct field line maps for small numbers of charges or charged conductors.
• The student is able to apply quantitative aspects of basic electric field configurations in qualitative reasoning, e.g.
• E points away from positive charges (toward negative).
• E falls off as r squared for the point charge, and as r cubed for the Dipole.
• The force produced by one charge on another is equal to the force produced by the second charge on the first.
• Students recognize the analytic simplicity implied by the concept of superposition and can apply this understanding by constructing solutions to complex problems by adding the fields (or potentials) for simpler problems together to obtain the field (or potential) for the complex problem.
• The student can implement the previous objective for both discrete and continuous charge distributions.
• The student can compute the flux of the electric field and use it in Gauss' law.
The Electric Potential Particular Objectives
• The student demonstrates understanding of the electric potential in the space around environment charges by drawing qualitatively correct equipotential maps for small numbers of charges or charged conductors.
• The student demonstrates understanding of the relationships between electric field and electric potential by the ability to transform electric field maps into electric potential maps and the reverse.
The Electric Circuit Particular Objectives
• The student clearly distinguishes electric potential from current in electric circuits and recognizes current as a material flow (conserved) that proceeds in the direction of the gradient of the potential.
• The student can link electric potential in electric circuits to the concept of potential described above and to models of circuit potential such as water pressure or "electrical height".
• Students can analyze simple series and parallel networks using equivalent circuits, solving for any desired variable.
• Students can analyze complex networks using Kirchoff's rules.
• The student understands and can apply the formal definitions for capacitance, resistance, current, current density, resistivity, power, EMF and internal resistance.
• Students can predict the outcome of simple shorting and disconnecting experiments.
• Students can analyze RC and LR circuits using calculus, solve problems using this analysis, and predict qualitatively the time behavior of such circuits.
The Magnetic Field Particular Objectives
• The student can predict field geometries from source geometries and can apply the laws of Bio-Savart and Ampere to this problem.
• The student can determine the forces exerted on system charges or currents by external magnetic fields (Lorentz Force). In addition to other common geometries, the student will be able to compute the torque on dipoles and current loops.
• The student can apply the appropriate Right Hand Rule to both objectives above.
• In the absence of point sources for the magnetic field, students recognize the dipole as a model for many magnetic field structures.
• The student can apply symmetry arguments based on the sources to the structure of the magnetic field and use this together with Amperes law to solve problems or draw conclusions about phenomena.
The Field-Field Particular Objectives
• The student understands that changing Magnetic fields produce Electric fields, and that changing Electric fields produce Magnetic fields. The student can properly apply the Right Hand Rule for these interactions and lens law for general induction phenomena.
• The student can describe the physical principles that explain motors and generators and the conceptual similarities between these devices.