# PHYS 122 General Engineering Physics II • 6 Cr.

## Description

Second in a three-course survey of physics for science and engineering majors. Course presents fundamental principles of electromagnetism, including electrostatics, current electricity circuits, magnetism induction, generation of electricity, electromagnetic oscillations, alternating currents, and Maxwell's equations. Conceptual development and problem solving have equal emphasis. Laboratory work presents methods of experimental analysis (modeling, errors, graphical analysis, etc.) and prepares students for upper-division research. Prerequisite: PHYS 121 and MATH& 152 or permission of instructor.

## Outcomes

After completing this class, students should be able to:

Laboratory Skills

• Use standard laboratory instruments

appropriately, based on a sufficient understanding of their function;

• Measure physical quantities in the

laboratory with appropriate attention to minimizing possible sources of random

and systematic error;

Laboratory

Practice, Outcome/Assessment: Student

will reliably acquire data of sufficient quality to decisivly test the

hypothesis of formal laboratory investigations.

Alternative or parallel assessment:

The student will demonstrate satisfactory performance on lab practicum

questions associated with mid-term or final exams.

• Measure physical quantities in the

laboratory with appropriate attention to minimizing possible sources of random

and systematic error;

• Make reasonable estimates of the

uncertainties associated with each measurement;

• Recognizes that measurement uncertainty is

estimated as an act judgment on the part of the observer and that judgment does

not imply arbitrariness.

Measurement,

Outcome/Assessment: Student will

reliably record quality data acquired through measurement, habitually assigning

a reasonable uncertianty to each measured value. Data analysis and conclusive statements from

formal lab reports will demonstrate a satisfactory level

• Evaluate a hypothesis in terms of its

testability and determine the kind and amount of data required to test it;

• Summarize the properties of a set of data

to facilitate analysis, using standard statistics such as mean and standard

deviation;

• Determine the uncertainty of a computed

quantity that arises from the uncertainties in the measured values of the

quantities from which it is computed;

• Analyze an appropriate set of measurements

for consistency with a hypothesis, form and justify a conclusion regarding the

fit between the data and the hypothesis;

Communication Skills

• Produce a compact and unambiguous verbal

description of an experimental procedure and of the observations/data obtained

using it;

• Produce a compact and unambiguous verbal

description of a chain of theoretical or experimental reasoning, including

clarity regarding assumptions, accuracy regarding logical connections,

specificity regarding conclusions, and clarity regarding the scope (and

limitations) of applicability.

Physical Problem Solving Skills

• Habitually sketches the configuration of

problem elements as part of the problem solving process;

• Habitually uses a variety of

representations in the problem solving process;

• Consciously selects an appropriate

coordinate system;

• Identifies sub-problems and breaks a large

problem into parts (linking variables).

• Habitually develops and interprets

algebraic representations before substituting particular numerical values;

• Makes appropriate use of significant

figures and units in problem solving;

• Interprets algebraic and numerical results

in words;

Fundamental Force

Concepts

Fundamental Force objectives

• Students understand that there are four

fundamental forces in nature.

• The gravitational force.

• The electromagnetic force.

• The weak nuclear force.

• The strong nuclear force.

• Students will be able to interpret and use

the vector expressions for the gravitational and electric forces., and to recognize the implications of these

expressions for the analysis of many body problems by direct force calculation.

Electrostatics

Context for the objectives

• Classical Physics is applied to nature by

making an intellectually fruitful choice of system to study. The rest of the universe then becomes the

environment for this system. This

analytic dichotomy is both a goal for instruction and a context for describing

the objectives below.

• When the system and its environment each

comprise small numbers of charges, analysis proceeds by computing the electric

field or electric potential produced by the environmental charges, then

computing the interaction of system charges with that field. The force (or potential energy) of that interaction

then becomes an input to the mechanics problem as described in Physics 121

(114).

Electrostatics General objectives

• The Student is able to make fruitful

choices of system charge(s) to study and clearly distinguishes between the

system and the environment. The student

can distinguish between and properly associate the field (or potential)

belonging to the system charge from those made by charges in the environment.

• The student can generate expressions for

the field (or potential) produced by the environment charges throughout the

region containing the system charge(s) and determine the values for these

quantities at the site of the system charge(s).

• The student can generate expressions for

the interaction (force or potential energy) produced by the environment charges

on the system charge(s) and determine the values for these interactions as

inputs to the associated mechanics problem.

• The student is able to apply the learning

objectives of the mechanics course to solve mechanics problems in this new

context. The student has developed the

awareness that the mechanics principles can be generalized beyond that course.

• The process described above is linear,

proceeding from cause to effect. Once it

is understood the student must also be able to reason (and solve problems) that

begin with the effects as the inputs and have the causes as the desired goal.

The Electrostatics Particular Objectives

• Students able to explain simple

electrostatics experiments and charge separation phenomena using ideas of

conduction, polarization of matter, and neutral pairs.

• The student has an introductory

understanding of the structure and constituents of atoms, molecules, crystals

and amorphous solids, and can describe how these structures and the very large

number of particles involved affect the electrical properties of the respective

macroscopic material.

• Students can identify the spectrum of

electric properties of bulk matter resulting from the range of conductivity

(zero to sensibly infinite) and understand the basic implications of these

properties on the fields and potentials in and around matter. The student can describe these implications

both microscopically and macroscopically.

• Students recognize that the structure of

the field (or potential) is determined

by the structure of the charges.

Students will demonstrate this understanding by identifying symmetries

in the field (or potential) structure that arise from symmetries in the charge

distribution (point vs. line vs. plane sources, E vs. B field structures).

• The student can apply symmetry arguments

concerning field structure to the application of Gauss' law.

• Students recognize asymmetry in the charge

distributions and can relate these

asymmetries to the structure of the fields (ex; discontinuity of E at a

boundary, the magnetic field around a wire etc. ).

• The student demonstrates understanding of

the electric field in the space around environment charges by drawing

qualitatively correct field line maps for small numbers of charges or charged

conductors.

• The student is able to apply quantitative

aspects of basic electric field configurations in qualitative reasoning, e.g.

• E points away from positive charges (toward

negative).

• E falls off as r squared for the point

charge, and as r cubed for the Dipole.

• The force produced by one charge on another

is equal to the force produced by the second

charge on the first .

• Students recognize the analytic simplicity

implied by the concept of superposition and can apply this understanding by

constructing solutions to complex problems by adding the fields (or potentials)

for simpler problems together to obtain the field (or potential) for the

complex problem.

• The student can implement the previous

objective for both discrete and continuous charge distributions.

• The student can compute the flux of the

electric field and use it in Gauss' law.

The Electric Potential Particular Objectives

• The student demonstrates understanding of

the electric potential in the space around environment charges by drawing

qualitatively correct equipotential maps for small numbers of charges or

charged conductors.

• The student demonstrates understanding of

the relationships between electric field and electric potential by the ability

to transform electric field maps into electric potential maps and the reverse.

The Electric Circuit Particular Objectives

• The student clearly distinguishes electric

potential from current in electric circuits and recognizes current as a

material flow (conserved) that proceeds in the direction of the gradient of the

potential.

• The student can link electric potential in

electric circuits to the concept of potential described above and to models of

circuit potential such as water pressure or "electrical height".

• Students can analyze simple series and

parallel networks using equivalent circuits, solving for any desired variable.

• Students can analyze complex networks using

Kirchoff's rules.

• The student understands and can apply the

formal definitions for capacitance, resistance, current, current density, resistivity, power, EMF and internal

resistance.

• Students can predict the outcome of simple

shorting and disconnecting experiments.

• Students can analyze RC and LR circuits

using calculus, solve problems using this analysis, and predict qualitatively

the time behavior of such circuits.

The Magnetic Field Particular Objectives

• The student can predict field geometries

from source geometries and can apply the laws of Bio-Savart and Ampere to this

problem.

• The student can determine the forces

exerted on system charges or currents by external magnetic fields (Lorentz

Force). In addition to other common

geometries, the student will be able to compute the torque on dipoles and

current loops.

• The student can apply the appropriate Right

Hand Rule to both objectives above.

• In the absence of point sources for the

magnetic field, students recognize the dipole as a model for many magnetic

field structures.

• The student can apply symmetry arguments

based on the sources to the structure of the magnetic field and use this

together with Amperes law to solve problems or draw conclusions about

phenomena.

The Field-Field Particular Objectives

• The student understands that changing

Magnetic fields produce Electric fields, and that changing Electric fields

produce Magnetic fields. The student can

properly apply the Right Hand Rule for these interactions and lens law for

general induction phenomena.

• The student can describe the physical

principles that explain motors and generators and the conceptual similarities

between these devices.

## Offered

- Winter 2020 (current quarter)
- Fall 2019
- Summer 2019
- Spring 2019